Cyber Glossary

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Sometimes, an organization's critical systems or applications are interrupted. An acceptable interruption window is the maximum amount of time allowed for restoration of critical systems and applications such that the business goals are not negatively affected.

RELATED: Disruption | Easy Access

Acceptable Use Policy

An acceptable use policy establishes the rules that one must agree to in order to be provided access to a network or internet. The policy also sets guidelines on how the network should be used.

RELATED: File Protection | Network

An access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object in a computer file. Each ACL contains a list of access control entries (ACE) that specifies which users or system processes are granted access, denied access or are audited for a securable object.

RELATED: Access Rights | Permissions

An access path is a process where a specified quantity of material moves as a unit between work stations, while maintaining its unique identity. In database management system terminology, access path refers to the path chosen by the system to retrieve data after a SQL request is executed.


An access point is a computer networking device which allows a Wi-Fi compliant device to connect to a wired network wirelessly. It usually connects via a router. It is frequently referred to as a WAP (Wireless Access Point).

RELATED: Wireless Application Protocol | Router

Access Profile

An access profile is accessibility information about a user that is stored on a computer. A profile includes the user's password, name and what information/systems they are allowed or denied access to.

RELATED: Root | Brute Force Attack

Access rights are permissions that are granted to a user, or an application, to view, modify or delete files in the network. These rights can be assigned to a particular client, server, folder, specific programs or data files.

RELATED: Data Server | Permissions

Access type is used to specify attributes. It is applied to an entity class, mapped superclass or embeddable class.

RELATED: Issue - Specific Policy | List Based Access Control

Account Manager

An account manager in an organization is responsible for the management of sales and relationships with particular customers, so that they will continue to use the company for business.

RELATED: Electronic Signature | Software

Accountability in the cyber security space entails ensuring that activities on supported systems can be traced to an individual who is held responsible for the integrity of the data.

RELATED: Chief Security Officer | Role Based Access Control

Accounting legend code (ALC) is the numeric code assigned to communications security (COMSEC) material. It indicates the degree of accounting and minimum accounting controls required for items to be accountable within the control systems.

RELATED: Sensitive Information | OPSEC

Active defense refers to a process, whereby an individual or organization takes an active role to identify and mitigate threats to the network and its systems.

RELATED: Cybersecurity | NGIPS

Active security testing is security testing which involves directly interacting with a target, such as sending packets.

RELATED: Packet | Promiscuous Mode

An ad hoc network is a local area network (LAN) that spontaneously builds as devices connect. An ad hoc network does not rely on a base station to coordinate different points, rather the individual base nodes forward packets to and from each other.

RELATED: Local Area Network (LAN) | Source Port

Administrative safeguards are a special set of the HIPPA security rules. Administrative safeguards focus on internal organization, policies and procedures, and the maintenance of security managers which are in place to protect sensitive patient information.

RELATED: Due Diligence | Protocol

The advanced encryption standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael, is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The algorithm described by AES is a symmetric-key algorithm, where the same key is used for both encrypting and decrypting the data.

RELATED: Cipher | Encryption

Advanced penetration testing is the process where a network is penetrated intentionally to discover vulnerabilities which make it open to harmful intruders. These vulnerabilities are then addressed and remedied early.

RELATED: Man-In-The-Middle | Zero Day

An individual, group, organisation, or government that conducts (or intends to conduct) detrimental activities. In cryptography, an adversary has malicious intent to prevent the users of the cryptosystem from achieving their goal by threatening the privacy, integrity and availability of data. This could be done by discovering secret data, corrupting some of the data, spoofing the identity of a message sender, or forcing system downtime.

RELATED: Distributed Denial of Service Attack (DDoS) | Spoofing

Adware is a type of software that displays or downloads unwanted advertisements on your system. Some adware which are designed to be malicious act at a speed and frequency that slows down the system and ties up resources. Adware often includes code that tracks a user's personal information and passes it on to a third party. Having multiple adware slows down your computer significantly.

RELATED: Forensically Clean | Malware

An alert situation is when the interruption in an enterprise is not resolved even after the competition of the threshold stage, an alert situation requires the enterprise to start escalation procedure.

RELATED: Governance | Incident Management

Alternate facilities are secondary backup facilities where high-priority emergency tasks can be performed when primary facilities are interrupted and made unavailable. These facilities include offices and data processing centers.

RELATED: Cold Site | Hot Site

An alternate process is a back-up process devised to help continue business critical processes without any interruption, from the time the primary enterprise system breaks down to the time of its restoration.

RELATED: Fallover | Maintenance

A computer program that analyzes log files from servers.

RELATED: Data Server | Log Clipping

Anti-malware refers to a software program that prevents, detects and remediates malicious programming on computing devices or IT systems.

RELATED: Badware | Malware

A program that is designed to detect and destroy computer viruses - preventing them from entering a computer system or network.

RELATED: Firewall | Virus

An app attack describes the scenario when a user unknowingly installs a malicious app on a device, which in turn steals their personal data.

RELATED: Logic Bomb | Macro Virus

An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. It is one of the seven layers in both of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model)

RELATED: Protocols | TCP/IP

Architecture refers to a structure that defines the fundamentals of a system or an organization, its components, and the relationship across components. Ultimately, it aims to guide the system or organization towards its goals.

RELATED: Infrastructure as-a-service (IaaS) | Software Development Kit

An asset is a resource; something of value. This could be a person, structure or facility, information, systems and resources, materials, processes, relationships, or reputation.

RELATED: Server | Workstation

Assurance in cybersecurity refers to the the level of confidence that the information system architecture meditates and enforces the organization's security policy.

RELATED: Compliance | Resilience

Asymmetric Key Cryptography, also known as Public key cryptography, is an cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.

RELATED: Private Key | Public Key

An attack is a malicious intent to gain unauthorized access to a system , or compromise system integrity or confidentiality. It interrupts the operations of a network.

RELATED: Masquerade Attack | Pharming

An attack mechanism is a system or strategy by which a target is hit; the attacker may use different attack mechanisms such as a container or payload to hit the intended target.

RELATED: Incident | Watering Hole

An attack vector is the means by which the hacker accesses the targetted system. Attack vestors allow hackers to exploit system vulnerabilities, both human and non.

RELATED: Social Engineering | Weakness

An individual, group, organisation, or government that executes an attack. A party acting with malicious intent to compromise an information system.

RELATED: Black Hat | Hacker

Attenuation happens when signal strengths become weak after transmitting over long distances.

RELATED: Synchronization | Topology

Audit trail is a documented record of events or transactions. It allows the auditor to trace a piece of information to its origin and to reconstruct past system activities.This helps to maintain security and recover any lost data.

RELATED: Inside Threat | Investigation

Authentication is the proces of confirming the correctedness of the claimed identity of an individual user, machines or software component, to allow access to the system.

RELATED: Claimant | Token-based Access Control

Authenticity is the proof that a claimed identity is legitimate.

RELATED: Authentication | Password

Authorization is the right, permission or empowerment that is granted to a system entity to access the system resource and do something.

RELATED: Integrity | Whitelist

Availability is the time duration a system or resource is ready for use.

RELATED: Disruption | Poison Reverse

A backdoor bypasses normal security authentications to enter a system. Backdoors are created by developers to speed access through security during the development phase. When they are not properly removed during final implementation, hackers can use backdoors to bypass security implementations and threaten the security of the system.

RELATED: Brute Force Attack | Firewall

Malware, Adware and Spyware.

RELATED: Adware | Malware

Bandwidth is the volume of information that can pass through a network for a given period. It specifies the capacity of the communciation channel, and is usually measured in bits per second.

RELATED: File Transfer Protocol | Hub

Baseline security is the minimum set of security controls required for safeguarding an IT system. Baseline security is based upon a system's identified needs for confidentiality, integrity and availability protection.

RELATED: Integrity | Secure Communications

A bastion is a system of high level of security protection that offers very strong protection against attacks.


A bastion host is a special services computer on a network that is designed to withstand attacks.

RELATED: Management System | Redundant Control Server

A behavioral outcome is what an individual who has completed a specific training module is expected to accomplish on regular IT security job performance.

RELATED: Configuration Management | Gap Analysis

Biometrics is a type of security system, which uses unique physiological characteristics of a person such as fingerprints, DNA, hair for identification purposes.

RELATED: Domain Controller | Identification

A bit error rate is the ratio between the number of bits incorrectly received and the total number of bits transmitted in a telecommunications system.

RELATED: Checksum | Otcet

A black core is a communication network architecture in which user data traversing a global internet protocol (IP) is end-to-end encrypted at the IP layer.

RELATED: Encryption | Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)

A black hat hacker is the “bad guy” who violates computer security for few reasons beyond maliciousness or personal gain. Black Hat Hackers may share information about the hack with other black hats so that the same vulnerabilities can be exploited before the victim becomes aware and takes appropriate measures.

RELATED: Adversary | White Hat

A list of entities that are blocked or denied privileges or access.

RELATED: Access Control List | Content Filtering

A form of filtering that blocks only websites specified as harmful. Parents and employers sometimes use such software to prevent children and employees from visiting certain blacklisted websites.

RELATED: Monitoring Software | Whitelisting Software

A blended attack is a hostile action with the intent of spreading malicious code.

RELATED: IDPS | Malicious Code

A blended threat is a computer network attack that tries to maximize the severity of damage by combining various attack methods. combine the characteristics of viruses, worms, trojan horses, and malicious code with system and internet vulnerabilities to initiate, transmit and spread an attack.

RELATED: Polymorphic Virus | Resource Exhaustion

A block cipher algorithm is a family of functions and their inverses parameterized by a cryptographic key in which the function map bit strings of a fixed length to bit strings of the same length. It is a method used to cipher text, information by encrypting data in blocks, strings, or group at a time rather encrypting individual bits.

RELATED: Cipher Test | Encryption

A bot is a software “robot” that performs an extensive set of automated tasks on its own. Search engines like Google use bots, also known as spiders, to crawl through websites in order to scan and rank pages.When black hats use a bot, they can perform an extensive set of destructive tasks, as well as introduce many forms of malware to your system or network. They can also be used by black hats to coordinate attacks by controlling botnets.

RELATED: Black Hat | Zombie Computer

A botnet is a remote network of zombie drones under the control of a black hat. Attackers use various malware and viruses to take control of computers to form a botnet (robotic network), which will send further attacks such as spam and viruses to target computers or networks. Most often, the users of the systems will not even know they are involved .

RELATED: Threat | Zombie / Zombie Drone

A bridge is an electronic device that connects two networks such as LAN that uses the same protocol such as Ethernet or Token Ring, and creates two distinct LAN's or Wide Area Networks. Operating at the Data Link Layer of the Open System Interconnect model, bridges have the ability to filter the information and can pass such information to the right nodes, or decide not to pass any information. They also help in streamlining or reducing the volume of traffic on a LAN by dividing the data into two segments.

RELATED: Ethernet | Switch Network

A broadcast is a process of transmitting the same message to multiple users simultaneously without the need for acknowledgement from users.

RELATED: Date Flow Control | Spam

A brute force attack is the process of finding the solution by trying many probable variants of information such as passwords, deciphered keys, randomly.

RELATED: Decipher | Remotely Exploitable

A buffer overflow is a type of programmatic flaw, when a program tries to store more data to a buffer than it can hold. Since there is a limit on how much data a buffer can hold, any surplus data overflows to the adjoining buffers. This causes data stored in those buffers to be overwritten, and triggers unpredictable consequences.

RELATED: Collision | CRC

An unexpected and relatively small defect, fault, flaw, or imperfection in an information system or device.

RELATED: Exploit | Patch

Business continuity management refers to preparing for and maintaining continued business operations following disruption or crisis.

RELATED: Business Continuity Plan | Conflict-of-interest Escalation

A Business Continuity Plan, also known as business emergency plan, offers safeguards against a disaster, and outlines the strategies, action plan on how to continue business as usual in the event of any disaster.

RELATED: Business Continuity Management | Contingency Plan

A Business Impact Analysis is the process of evaluating and identifying risks and threats that a business might face in the event of an accident, disaster, or an emergency. It evaluates the possible risk to tangible and intangible assets such as personal, infrastructure, data and goodwill. In addition, it offers steps needed to recover from any such disasters.

RELATED: Incident Management | Risk Assessment

C2 is a computer security class defined in the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSec).

RELATED: C2 Infrastructure Data | Security

C2 infrastructure data consists of domains, IP addresses, protocol signatures, email addresses, payment card data, etc.

RELATED: C2 | Data Custodian

A central services node is the key management infrastructure core node that provides central security management and data management services.

RELATED: Gateway | Mandatory Access Control

In cryptography, a certificate authority is an entity that issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.

RELATED: Digital Certificate | Public Key

Certificate management is the process in which certificates are generated, used, transmitted, loaded and destroyed.

RELATED: Trusted Certificate | Web of Trust

A certification revocation list is an independent third party that verifies the online identity of an entity. They issue digital certificates that contains information about the owner of the certificate and details of the certificates, thus verifying the identity of the owner.

RELATED: Trusted Certificate | Web of Trust

A chain of custody is a chronological documentation of how electronic evidence is handled and collected. It also contains information on how has access to it.

RELATED: Digital Evidence | Evidence

The chain of evidence shows who obtained the evidence, where the evidence came from, also who secured, had control and possession of the evidence. The chain of evidence goes in the following order: collection and identification; analysis; storage; preservation; presentation in court; return to owner.

RELATED: Evidence | Digital Forensics

C2 is a computer security class defined in the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSec).

RELATED: C2 Infrastructure Data | Security

C2 is a computer security class defined in the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSec).

RELATED: C2 Infrastructure Data | Security

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